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1,4-Dioxane is a synthetic chemical widely used as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents, particularly 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). It has also been used in various products as a laboratory reagent and as an extraction medium for plant and animal oils.

See New York State Drinking Water Quality Council recommendation to establish a drinking water limit of 1.0µg/L here

Due to its mobility, solubility, and persistent stability, 1,4-Dioxane poses numerous environmental challenges. Thousands of contaminated solvent sites in the United States have been characterized without considering the presence of 1,4-Dioxane. It is recognized as an emerging contaminant and was included in the EPA Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule UCMR-3.

To characterize a 1,4 Dioxane site, determine an effective remediation strategy and gain regulatory approval to execute strategy. Pace Analytical offers testing services to multiple lines of evidence.

Concentration Data By GC/MS SIM
Multiple Pace Labs provide concentration data by EPA Method 8260 SIM or 8270 SIM.

Low Level By EPA Method 522 Isotope Dilution Process
Pace Florida and New York labs provide the lowest RL’s by Method 522.

Real-Time Mobile Lab Data Is Available As Needed
Pace offers mobile lab solutions when real-time data is critical to the success of the project.

Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)
One-dimensional CSIA on the carbon isotopes is used to show fractionation and prove contaminant destruction has occurred. Additional measurements down the plume may enable the calculation of degradation rates and percentages.
Two-dimensional CSIA of carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios are used to fingerprint 1,4-Dioxane throughout the plume to determine if multiple sources are present.

BER Microbial Array
Pace Analytical offers a microbial DNA array test that targets several groups of contaminant degrading microbes, including a group that has been shown to degrade 1,4-Dioxane in the environment.

1,4-Dioxane In Air
USEPA methods TO-15 and TO-17 can be used to determine if 1,4-Dioxane is present in the subsurface or indoor air, and potentially contributing to Vapor Intrusion. These methods are available from the Pace Analytical Air Laboratory.

Regardless of the 1,4-Dioxane challenges you encounter in the field, Pace has the solutions.

Standard analysis by EPA 8260 SIM or EPA 8270 SIM available at most Pace laboratories:
Method MDL (µg/L) MRL (µg/L)
8270 SIM 0.028 0.10
8260 SIM 0.06 0.5
Low-level reporting by EPA 522 available at select Pace labs:
Method MDL (µg/L) MRL (µg/L)
522 0.028 0.07
Mobile lab based 1,4-Dioxane water method by SPME/GCMS/SIM/ID when real time data is critical
Method MDL (µg/L) MRL (µg/L)
8260 SIM 0.06 0.5

Conclusion
As regulatory concern increases around this probable human carcinogen, it is likely that risk levels and regulatory guidelines will expand. This could potentially lead to the reopening of closed chlorinated solvent sites across the country. At the very least, it will add complexity to sites that are already challenging to move toward closure. Pace Analytical offers the most comprehensive 1,4-Dioxane capabilities in the United States to assist with these challenges.

For more information, regardless of the matrix, contact Pace Analytical today: drinkinkingwater@pacelabs.com