Petroleum Forensics Guide

Analysis Matrix Method Reporting Features Purpose
     Tier 1
C3-C36 Whole Oil Fingerprint Product Modified ASTM D3328

Semi-quantitative screen of:

  • Gasoline range PIANO;
  • Semi-quant screen of kerosene range to residual range hydrocarbons (select n-paraffins and isoparaffins);

GC/FID chromatogram

Assists in general identification of a) refined petroleum or crude oil types present and b) general weathering attributes of the gasoline range to residual range petroleum (whole oil). Subsequent tiers of investigation will likely be needed to conduct more detailed and conclusive source and age determinations.
C8-C40 Petroleum Fingerprint Water, Soil, Sediment Modified EPA 8015C

Quantitative determination of:

  • C8-C40 n-paraffins
  • Select isoprenoids -Farnesane, 2,6,10-trimethyltridecane, pristane, phytane;
GC/FID chromatogram
Assists in general identification of types of refined petroleum or crude oils present and general weathering attributes of the semi-volatile range petroleum. Subsequent tiers of investigation will likely be needed to conduct more detailed and conclusive source and age determinations.
Tier 2 (VOC)
C3-C12 Quantitative Petroleum Characterization

Water, Soil, Product

EPA 8260 Mod.

Concentrations of:

  • 108 PIANO compounds;
  • 4 oxygenate additives –MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and DIPE;
  • 2 Lead scavengers – EDC, EDB;
  • 6 thiophene isomers;
  • MMT;

General panel of diagnostic ratios and percentages;

Histogram bar chart
Assists in the detailed characterization of gasoline range petroleum types – gasoline, refinery feedstocks, aviation fuel, or condensate. These data are essential for gasoline source and age investigations.
Oxygenated  Blending Agents   Product EPA 1624 Mod.

Concentrations of oxygenated blending agents:
 - MTBE, DIPE, ETBE, TAME, TBA, ethanol

Quantifies oxygenated additives in gasoline. Produces data that may be critical for age constraining and source investigations of gasoline.

EDB and Organic Lead

Product

EPA 8080 Mod.

Concentrations of 5 alkyl lead compounds & lead scavenger:
- TEL, MTEL, DEDML, TMEL, TML, EDB

Quantifies the five alkyl lead compounds added to gasoline as well as the lead scavenger, EDB. Produces data that may be critical for age constraining and source investigations of gasoline.
Tier 2 (SVOC)

C8-C40 Full Scan Semi-Quantitative Characterization

Product, Water, Soil, Sediment Modified ASTM D5739

Semi-quantitative data & labeled chromatograms for petroleum biomarkers:

  • n-paraffins (85 m/z), isoparaffins (113 m/z), alkylcyclohexanes (83 m/z), C3-C4 monoaromatics (134 m/z), bicyclanes (123 m/z), steranes (217 m/z), terpane biomarkers (191 m/z);

Qualitative bar for Alkylated PAHs
Full Scan TIC

Data is useful for a detailed source characterization of a) kerosene range petroleum, b) diesel range petroleum, c) heavier fuels and residual range products e) light to heavy crude oils. Data reports relevant light to residual range petroleum biomarkers. Also, a qualitative review of alkylated PAHs is included.
Parent and Alkylated PAHs Product, Water, Soil Modified EPA 8270

Parent and alkylated PAH & others:

  • Parent decalins, C1-C4 Ds;
  • Benzo(b)thiophene, C1-C4 BTs;
  • Naphthalene, C1-C4 NAP;
  • Fluorene, C1-C3 F;
  • Anthracene, Phenanthrene, C1-C4 P/A
  • Dibenzothiophenes, C1-C4 DBTs;
  • Fluoranthene, Pyrene, C1-C4 FL/PY
  • Benzo(b)naphthothiophenes, C1-C4 NBTs
  • Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, C1-C4 Chs
  • 12 Individual alkyl PAHs
  • Carbazole, retene, biphenyl, and dibenzofuran
Comprehensive panel of 5-6 ring PAHs
Provides a full panel of forensics grade PAH data.
Tier 3 Stable Isotopes
Bulk Isotope Composition Product Lab SOP δ2H and δ13C Bulk stable isotopes for petroleum. Bulk isotope information may provide additional information for chemical source investigations
CSIA (Petroleum VOC) Product Lab SOP δ2H and δ13C compound specific stable isotopes for select VOC hydrocarbons– paraffins, isoparaffins, aromatics (Including BTEX), and naphthenes Compound specific isotope information (CSIA) may provide additional information for chemical source investigations of gasoline, refinery feedstocks, and condensates.
CSIA (Petroleum SVOC) Product Lab SOP δ2H and δ13C compound specific stable isotopes for select SVOC hydrocarbons– C10 to nC28 n-alkanes & pristane & phytane Compound specific isotope information (CSIA) may provide additional information for chemical source investigations of Kerosene and diesel range petroleum
CSIA (Dissolved Phase Petroleum VOC - BTEX) Water Lab SOP δ2H and δ13C compound specific stable isotopes for – C2 monoaromatics – benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Compound specific isotope information (CSIA) may provide additional information for chemical source investigations of dissolved phase VOC petroleum chemistry.
CSIA (Dissolved Phase - Gasoline Additives) Water Lab SOP δ2H and δ13C compound specific stable isotopes for – oxygenate gasoline additives TBA, MTBE. Compound specific isotope information (CSIA) may provide additional information for chemical source investigations of dissolved phase VOC petroleum chemistry.
Boiling Range Estimation
Simulated Distillation Product ASTM 2887

Petroleum products in a mixture

Helps determine amounts of different fuel types present in a product sample. Artificial mixtures can be analyzed under consistent conditions to confirm the estimated composition.

Interpretation: 
This may help identify the petroleum products in samples, determine whether the samples and products are related, and may be able to provide an estimated time of release or age of the product.  These results may be correlated with other site characteristics to provide a more thorough understanding of the nature and origin at a site.  Providing as much background information about a site will allow for the most complete data interpretation. Ask about our Forensic Questionnaire form.

SUBCONTRACT ANALYSES

 

$45                   Density/Specific gravity by ASTMD1217

$60                  Viscosity ASTM D445 (subcontracted to Clark Testing) - 20mL

$160                Bromine ASTM D1159 (subcontracted to Clark Testing) - 30mL

$90                  Sulfur ASTM D2622 (subcontracted to Clark Testing) – 20mL

$70                  Boiling Point ASTM 1120 (subcontracted to Clark Testing) – 125mL

$85                  Flashpoint ASTM D93 (subcontracted to Clark Testing) – 100mL

Standard turnaround is 3 weeks – 15 business days

Surcharges for rush turnaround are as follows (The lab MUST be notified before samples are sent of any rush request to see our capability – samples not sent with lab approval cannot be guaranteed a rush request):

2 week: 50%

1 week: 75%    

3 days: 100%  

48 hour: 200%

EDD cannot be provided in standard tabular formatting. Numerical excel output forms are available upon request. 

No additional charge for keeping samples longer than 30 days past sample reporting; however, client MUST notify the lab to keep the samples. If not notified within 30 days of sample reporting, samples will be disposed of

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