Litigation Support and Expert Witness Testimony

Below, you can learn more about our data interpretation, expert witness testimony, and litigation support services. Browse through the links at the bottom of the page to see what constitutes "legally defensible data" and why Pace Analytical Energy Services is the best choice for providing reliable, valid interpretative results.

Consulting and Data Interpretation

Raw Data vs. Interpretation: Our environmental forensic and geochemical analytical laboratory delivers test results without commentary. It is useful only for geochemists with extensive interpretative experience in environmental forensics or oil exploration and production. Interpretative services are not included in the analytical cost. We strongly recommend that consultants without specific experience in forensic geochemistry utilize our data interpretation services. Please contact us regarding rates for telephone consultation on analytical results.

Site-Specific Background: Interpretation of analytical results requires site-specific background information which must be supplied before useful determinations can be achieved. The information must include the environmental setting of the sample, the objectives and goals of the interpretative analysis, site lithology and a site map of monitoring wells/borings.

Legally Defensible Analytical Data

1. Regulatory Rules for Analytical Testing

EPA vs. legal rules for analytical testing.

2. Tests for Legal Viability

Various tests that have been used as standards to determine whether scientific results are admissible in court.


  • The Frye Test
  • The Daubert Test
  • Kumho Tire case: Daubert is extended

3. Individual States' Ruling Preferences

Which test does each state adhere to?
Which states use their own tests?

  • California and the Frye Test

4. References

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