Table of Contents

2. Executive Summary

3. Introduction to Environmental Forensics

3.1 Difference between Environmental Forensics and Standard EPA Methods

- EPA Methods have limited use in forensics
- Forensics methods can answer more complicated questions
- Expertise is needed for interpretation of environmental forensic results

3.2 Introduction to Environmental Forensics

- Environmental forensics, a definition
- Sources and releases
- Finding a responsible party
- Analytical methods

4. The Origin and Chemistry of Petroleum

4.1 Formation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas

4.2 Chemical Constituents of Petroleum and its Refined Products

4.3 Characterization and Composition of Refined Products

- Gasoline fuel
- Middle distillate products
- Heavy oils

5. Identifying Hydrocarbons

5.1 Major Fuel Alteration Processes in the Environment

- Distribution in the subsurface environment
- Physical processes
- Weathering

5.2 Analytical Procedures (Tests performed at ZymaX)

5.3 Fugitive Gases, Their Sources and Differentiation

- Bacterial origins
- Thermogenic methane
- Stable isotope ratios

5.4 Gasoline Range Fuel Characterization by Volatile Hydrocarbon Distribution

- PIANO (paraffins, isoparaffins, aromatics, naphthenes, olefines)
- Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization
- Dye additive characterization
- Other additive characterization
- Stable isotope ratio characterization

5.5 Middle Distillate and Heavy Fuel Oil Characterization

- Alkane and alkylcyclohexane fingerprinting
- m/z 83 and 85 mass chromatograms for products
- Case histories using alkylcyclohexane patterns
- Environmental alterations of PAH’s (weathering, biodegradation)

5.6 Fuel Mixing Ratios by Simulated Distillation

6. Estimating Fuel Release Date

6.1 Composition at the Time of Production

6.2 Rate of Change in the Environment of Certain Constituents after Release

6.3 The (B+T)/(E+X) Ratio as a Time Indicator for Gasoline Release

6.4 The n-C17/pristane Ratio as Time Indicator for Diesel No. 2 Biodegradation

6.5 Constraints on Estimating Release Time

7. Appendix   

7.1 Keys for Compound Identification

7.2 References for the Forensics Primer

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