Appendix

7.1 Keys for Compound Identification

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Compounds.

Code Identity
n Number of carbon atoms in the n-alkane molecule
I-15 Farnesane (isoprenoid with 15 carbon atoms)
I-16 Isoprenoid with 16 carbon atoms
Pr Pristane (isoprenoid with 19 carbon atoms)
Ph Phytane (isoprenoid with 20 carbon atoms)
I-8 2,5-(2,4)-Dimethylhexane
I-8' 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane
I-8" 2,3-Dimethylhexane
CH-n Alkylcyclohexane (where n indicates number of carbon atoms in the side chain)

Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds.

Code Identity
AB: c3-c6 Alkylbenzenes
NAPH: c0-c4 Naphthalenes
FL: c0-c4 Fluorenes
BP: c0-c2 Biphenyl/Dibenzofuran
PHEN: c0-c4 Phenanthrenes
PY: c0-c4 Pyrenes/Fluoranthenes
CHR: c0-c4 Chrysenes
BT: c1-c5 Benzothiophenes
DBT: c0-c4 Dibenzothiophenes
NBT: c0-c4 Naphthobenzothiophenes
MAS: Monoaromatic Steranes
TAS: Triaromatic Steranes

C4-Alkylbenzenes (m/z 134 mass chromatogram).

Code
Identity
16 Sec-Butylbenzene
17 1-Methyl-3-Isopropylbenzene
18 1-Methyl-4-Isopropylbenzene
19 1-Methyl-2-Isopropylbenzene
20 1,3-Diethylbenzene
21 1-Methyl-3-Propylbenzene
22 Butylbenzene
23 1,3-Diemethyl-5-Ethylbenzene
24 1,2-Diethylbenzene
25 1-Methy-2-Propylbenzene
26 1,4-Dimethyl-2-Ethylbenzene
27 1,3-Dimethyl-4-Ethylbenzene
28 1,2-Dimethyl-4-Ethylbenzene
29 1,3-Dimethyl-2-Ethylbenzene
30 1,2-Dimethyl-3-Ethylbenzene
31a 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene
31 1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene
32 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene

Terpanes (m/z 191 mass chromatograms).

Code
Identity Carbon #
1 c21-Tricyclic Terpane 21
2 c22-Tricyclic Terpane 22
3 c23-Tricyclic Terpane 23
4 c24-Tricyclic Terpane 24
5 c25-Tricyclic Terpane 25
6 (a,b) c26-Tricyclic Terpane 26
7 c27-Tricyclic Terpane 27
A c28-Tricyclic Terpane # 1 28
B c28-Tricyclic Terpane #2 28
C c29-Tricyclic Terpane #1 29
D c29-Tricyclic Terpane #2 29
E 18a -22,29,30-Trisnorneohopane (Ts) 27
F 17a -22,29,30-Trisnorhopane (Tm) 27
I 17a -28,30-Bisnorhopane 28
K 17a ,21ß-30-Norhopane 29
L 17ß-21a -30-Normoretane 29
M 18a -Oleanane 30
N 17a ,21ß-Hopane 30
O 17ß,21a -Moretane 30
P 22S-17a ,21ß-30-Homohopane 31
Q 22R-17a ,21ß-30-Homohopane 31
T 22S-17a ,21ß-30,31-Bishomohopane 32
U 22R-17a ,21ß-30,31-Bishomohopane 32
WS 22S-17a ,21ß-30,31,32-Trishomohopane 33
WR 22R-17a ,21ß-30,31,32-Trishomohopane 33
XS 22S-17a ,21ß-30,31,32,33-Tetrahomohopane 34
XR 22R-17a ,21ß-30,31,32,33-Tetrahomohopane 34
YS 22S-17a ,21ß-30,31,32,33,34-Pentahomohopane 35
YR 22R-17a ,21ß-30,31,32,33,34-Pentahomohopane 35

Steranes (m/z 217 mass chromatogram).

Code Identity Carbon #
1 13ß,17a -diacholestane (20S) 27
2 13ß,17a -diacholestane (20R) 27
3 13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20S) 27
4 13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20R) 27
5 24-methyl-13ß,17a -diacholestane (20S) 28
6 24-methyl-13ß,17a -diacholestane (20R) 28
7D 5a ,24-methyl-13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20S) 28
7 14a ,17a -cholestane (20S) 27
8+8D 5a ,14ß,17ß-cholestane (20R) +
24-ethyl-13ß,17a -diacholestane(20S)
27+29
9 5a ,14ß,17ß-cholestane (20S) 27
9D 24-methyl-13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20R) 28
10 5a ,14a ,17a -cholestane (20R) 27 27
11 24-ethyl-13ß,17a -diacholestane (20R) 29
12 24-ethyl-13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20S) 29
13 24-methyl-14a ,17a -cholestane (20S) 28
14+14D 24-methyl-14ß,17ß-cholestane (20R) +
24-ethyl-13a ,17ß-diacholestane (20R)
28+29
15 24-methyl-14ß,17ß-cholestane (20S) 28
16 24-methyl-5a ,14a ,17a -cholestane (20R) 28
17 24-ethyl-14a -cholestane (20S) 29
18 24-ethyl-5a ,14ß,17ß-cholestane (20R) 29
19 24-ethyl-5a ,14ß,17ß-cholestane (20S) 29
20 24-ethyl-14a ,17a -cholestane (20R) 29

7.2 References

API (1994) Transport and fate of dissolved methanol, MTBE and monoaromatic hydrocarbons in shallow sand aquifer. American Petroleum Institure, Washington, D.C. Publication No. 4601.

ASTM (1994). Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. Vol. 02.04.

Atlas, R. M. (1981) Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: an environmental perspective. Microbiological Review 45(1) 180-209.

Baughman, G.L., Paris, D.F. (1981) Microbial bioconcentration of organic pollutants from aquatic systems - a critical review. In CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology, January 1981, pp 205-228.

Bosma, T. N. P., Ballemans, E. M. W., Hoekstra, N. K., te Welscher, R. A. G., Smeenk, J. G. M. M., Schraa, G. and Zehndez, G. (1996) Biotransformation of Organics in Soil Columns and Infiltration Area. Groundwater34 (1) Winter 1996, 49-56.

Bray, E. E. and Evans, E. D. (1961) Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 22, 2-15.

Caldwell, J. W., (1994) USEPA. Private communication.

Christensen, L. B. and Larsen, T. H. (1993) Method for determining the age of diesel oil spills in the soil. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation23(4), 142-49.

Conrad, R. (1993) Mechanisms controling methane emission from wetland rice fields. In Biochemistry of Global Change (Edited by Oremland, R.S.), Chapman Hall, NY pp. 317-335.

Douglas, G.S., Bence, A.E., Prince, R.C., McMillen, S.J., Butler, E.L. (1996) Environmental stability of selected petroleum hydrocarbon source and weathering ratios. Environmental Science and Technology20 (7), pp. 2332-2339.

Douglas, G.S., Uhler, A.D. (1993) Petroleum-contaminated site assessments. Environmental Testing and Analysis, May/June, 46-53.

Douglas, G. S., McCarthy, K. J., Dahlen, D. T., Seavey, J. A., Steinhauer, W. G., Prince, R. C., and Elmendorf, D. L. (1992) The use of hydrocarbon analysis for environmental assessment and remediation. Journal of Soil Contamination1(3), 197-216.

Eganhouse, R. P., Baedecker, M.J., Cozzavelli, I.M., Aikens, G.R., Thorn, K.A. and Dorsey, T. F. (1993) Crude oil in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer-II. Organic Geochemistry. Applied Geochemistry 8, 551-567.

Eganhouse R.P., Dorsey T.F., Phinney C.S. and Westcott A.M. (1996) Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil. Environmental Science and Technology 30 (11) 3304-3312.

Fetter, C.W. (1992) Contaminant Hydrogeology. Prentice-Hall, NJ, pp 458.

Gibbs, L. M. (1990) Gasoline additives - when and why. In SAE Technical Paper Series. International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, October 22-25, at Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Gibbs, L. M. (1993) How gasoline has changed. In SAE Technial Paper Series. Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, October 18-21, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Glazer, J. A. (1991) Nutrient-enhanced bioremediation of oil-contaminated shoreline: the Valdez experience. In In-Situ Bioreclamation (Edited by Hinchee, R. E. and Olfenbuttel, R. F.), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 125-142

Grifoll, J., Gohen, Y. (1996) UCLA. Private communication.

Hoag, G.E. and Marley, M.C. (1986) Gasoline residual saturation in unsaturated uniform aquifer materials. Journal of Environmental Engineering 112 (3), 586-604.

Hoefs, J., (1997) Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, p. 201.

Hoffman, H.L. and McKetta, J.J. (1992) Petroleum Processing Handbook (Edited by McKetta, J.J.) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY, p. 82-101.

45 IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (1989), 224

Jenden P.D. and Kaplan, I.R. (1989) Origin of Natural Gas in Sacramento Basin, California, 73 AAPG Bull. 431-53.

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology (1977), 664-71.

Kaplan, I. R. (1992) Characterizing petroleum contaminants in soil and water and determining source of pollutants. In Proceeding of the Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Detection and Restoration.NGWA, Dublin, Ohio. 3-18.

Kaplan, I.R. (1994) Identification of formation process and source of biogenic gas seeps. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences43, 297-308.

Kaplan, I. R., Galperin, Y., Alimi, H., Lee, R. P. and Lu, S. T. (1996) Patterns of chemical changes during environmental alteration of hydrocarbon fuels. Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation16 (4), 113-124.

Kaplan, I. R. and Galperin, Y. (1996) Application of alkylcyclohexane distribution pattern recognition for hydrocarbon fuels identification in environmental samples. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Conference on Contaminated Soil, 21-24 October, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Kaplan, I. R., Galperin, Y., Lu, S. T. and Lee, R. P. (1997) Forensic Environmental Geochemistry: differentiation of fuel-types, their sources and release time. In Org. Geochem.Vol. 27, No 5/6, pp. 287-317

Lane, J.C. (1980) Gasoline and other motorfuels. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopeida of Chemical Technology (Edited by Grayson, M.) 11, John Wiley & Sons, NY, pp. 652-695.

Lyman, W.J., Reidy, P.J., Levy, B. (1992) Mobility and Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Subsurface Environments. C.K. Smoley, Inc., Chelsea, MI, pp 395.

McAuliffe, C. (1966) Solubility in water of paraffin, cycloparaffin, olefin, acetylene, cycloolefin and aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal Physical Chemistry. 70(4), 1267-1275.

Nickerson, S. P. (1954) Tetraethyl lead: a product of american research. Journal of Chemical Education. 31 560.

Odermatt, J.R. (1994) Natural chromatographic separation of benzene, toleune, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX compounds) in a gasoline contaminated groundwater aquifer. Organic Geochemistry21(10/11), 1141-1150.

Peters, K. E. and Moldowan, J. M. (1993) The Biomarker Guide, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp 363.

Public Health Bulletin No. 163 (June 1926), The Use of Tetraethyl Lead Gasoline in its Relation to Public Health.

Public Health Service Publication No. 712 (1959), Public Health Aspects of Increasing Tetraethyl Lead Content in Motor Fuel.

Riser-Roberts, E. (1992) Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. C.K. Smoley, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 197.

Schoell, M. (1984) Recent Advances in Petroleum Isotope Geochemistry, 6 Organic Geochemistry 645-63

Schoell, M. (1988) Multiple origins of methane in the earth. Chemical Geology71, 1-10.

Silverman, S. R. (1971) Influence of petroleum origin and transformation on its distribution and redistribution in sedimentary rocks. Proceedings of 8th World Petroleum Congress, London, England, 47-54.

Singer, M.E., Finnerty, W.R. (1984) Microbial metabolism of straight-chain and branched alkanes. In Petroleum Microbiology (Edited by Atlas, R.) 1-60.

Squillace, P.J., Pankow, J.F., Korte, N.E. and Zogorski, J.S. (1996) Environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ther (MTBE) U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. Fact Sheet FS-203-96.

Supelco (1991) High resolution detailed hydrocarbons analysis by capillart column gas chromatography. GC Bulletin 868. Supelco, Inc., Bellefonte, PA, pp 11.

Sutton, C. and Calder, J. A. (1975) Solubility of alkylbenzenes in distilled water and sea water at 25°C. Journal Chememial Engineering Data23, 320-322.

Title I - Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (Nov 15, 1990), Publ. L. 101-549, xx Stat. xx, codified at xx U.S.C. §§ xx GPO.

Touchstone, J.C. (1992) Practice of TLC, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1992, pp 377.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1990). Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste: Laboratory Manual for Physical and Chemical Methods(SW 846), 3rd ed. USEPA, Washington, DC.

Volkman, J. K. (1984) Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils from the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia. Organic Geochemistry6, No. 8: 619-632.

Walton, W.C. (1988) Practical Aspects of Ground Water Modeling. NWWA, Worthington, OH, pp. 587.

Ward, C.C. (1984) Gasoline. In Encyclopedia Americana (Edited by Holland, D.), Grolier, Inc., Danbury, CT 337-338.

Whiticar M.J., Faber E, Schoell M. (1986) Biogenic methane formation in marine and freshwater environments: CO 2 reduction vs. acetate fermentation - isotopic evidence. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta50 p. 693-709.

Whittemore, I. M. (1979) High resolution gas chromatography of the gasolines and naphthas. In Chromatography in petroleum analysis (Edited by Altgelt, K. H. and Gauw, T. H.) New York: Marcel Dekker, 41-74.

Wiedemeir, T.H., Swanson, M.A., Wilson, J.T., Kampbell, D.H., Miller, R.N., Hansen J.E. (1996) Approximation of biodegradation rate constants for monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in ground water. Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation 26 (4), 186-194.

Yang, Y.J., Spencer, R.D., Mersmann, M.A., Gates, T.M. (1995) Ground-water contaminant plume. Differentiation and source determination using BTEX concentration ratios. Ground Water33(6), 927-935.

Interested in Environmental Services?

We'd love to tell you more!

Contact Us Today